The branch consists of the two languages Tocharian A and Tocharian B, which were mutually unintelligible. Tocharian Language • Remains of an Indo-European language generally referred to as Tochari-an were found in the Tarim Basin, a large arid lowland located in present-day Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Republic (north of India, northeast of the Tibetan plateau, formerly called ‘Chinese Turkestan’). Class vi is not so much a coherent class as an "irregular" class with all verbs not fitting in other categories. The discovery of Tocharian contributed to doubts that Proto-Indo-European had originally split into western and eastern branches; today, the centum–satem division is not seen as a real familial division.. Tocharian A and Tocharian B have the same set of vowels, but they often do not correspond to each other. Many of the most archaic elements of the Indo-European vocabulary are retained—e.g., A por, B puwar ‘fire’ (Greek pyr, Hittite paḫḫur); A and B ku ‘dog’ (Greek kyōn); A tkaṃ, B keṃ ‘earth’ (Greek chthōn, Hittite tekan); and, especially, nouns of relationship: A pācar, mācar, pracar, ckācar, B pācer, mācer, procer, tkācer, ‘father,’ ‘mother,’ ‘brother,’ and ‘daughter,’ respectively. The first Tocharian manuscripts were discovered in the 1890s. However a smaller amount was written in the Manichaean script in which Manichaean texts were recorded. The language of Kucha, as evidenced by surviving manuscripts and inscriptions, was Kuśiññe (Kushine) also known as Tocharian B or West Tocharian, an Indo-European language. Writing was found from around the 5th century to the 8th century AD. There also exist 3rd-century Loulan Gāndhārī Prakrit documents that appear to borrow words from a closely related language referred to as Tocharian C, theoreticized by Klaus T. Schmidt. The most reasonable likelihood for the hybridisation process is that a specific group took over other groups, and they all adopted the most dominant language variant whilst also picking up influences from the later arrivals. I: Athematic without suffix < PIE root athematic. Though being the easternmost subphylum of IE, Tocharian is centum (see introduction). It has been devised that Tocharian A was used as a poetic and liturgical language, whereas Tocharian B was used as a more ofﬁcial, administrative language. , Tocharian B shows an internal chronological development; three linguistic stages have been detected. The subject matter of the texts suggests that Tocharian A was more archaic and used as a Buddhist liturgical language, while Tocharian B was more actively spoken in the entire area from Turfan in the east to Tumshuq in the west. In contrast, the verb verbal conjugation system is quite conservative. English. Yānqí, Uyg. Variation and change in Tocharian B is a systematic and extensive treatment of linguistic variants attested in this most archaic of the two Tocharian languages, which are known through manuscripts from the first millennium CE found along the Northern Silk Road in Xīnjiāng, China. In turn, the loss of final vowels in Tocharian A has led to the loss of certain Proto-Tocharian categories still found in Tocharian B, e.g.  The oldest stage is attested only in Kucha. Tense/aspect (in the indicative only): present, preterite, imperfect. Introduction 1.1. The first successful attempt at grammatical analysis and translation was made by the German scholars Emil Sieg and Wilhelm Siegling in 1908 in an article that also established the presence of the two languages (sometimes referred to as dialects), provisionally called A and B. Tocharian A is the easternmost Indo-European language, being spoken in ancient times in city-oases of Central Asia. Despite its historical position on the eastern frontier of the Indo-European world and the obvious lexical influence of Indo-Aryan and Iranian, Tocharian seems more closely allied linguistically with languages of the Indo-European northwest, particularly Italic and Germanic, in the matter of common vocabulary and certain verbal categories. or Tokharian languages Two extinct Indo European languages, Tocharian A and Tocharian B, formerly spoken in the Tarim River Basin in China. (2008). In Tocharian B there are also commercial documents, such as monastery records, caravan passes, medical and magical texts, and the like. A given verb belongs to one of a large number of classes, according to its conjugation. All except preterite class VI have a common set of endings that stem from the PIE perfect endings, although with significant innovations. Centum languages are mostly found in western and southern Europe (Greek, Italic, Celtic, Germanic). Tocharian is not closely related to other branches of Indo-European. A body of loanwords and names found in Prakrit documents from the Lop Nor basin have been dubbed Tocharian C (Kroränian). By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Het eerste deel van dit stuk kan worden gezongen door een solist, een kleine groep vrouwen, of alle vrouwen. Old Persian tuxāri-, Khotanese ttahvāra, and Sanskrit tukhāra), and proposed the name "Tocharian" (German Tocharisch). (Ed.)  They are known from manuscripts dating from the 5th to the 8th century AD, which were found in oasis cities on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (now part of Xinjiang in northwest China) and the Lop Desert. Information about Tocharian: Edit family data; Canonical name: Tocharian: Aliases: Tokharian; Family code: ine-toc: Common ancestor: Proto-Tocharian: Parent family: Indo-European; Wikidata: Q37029: Subcategories. Moscow, 1986. Tocharian is indeed interesting. Douglas Q. Adams, "On the Development of the Tocharian Verbal System". Peyrot (2013a) Peyrot, Michaël (2013) The Tocharian subjunctive, A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. The Tocharian languages, once spoken on the Silk Road from Kuča to Turfan in the Tarim Basin in present-day Northwest China, were without any trouble identified as Indo-European from the beginning of their study (Sieg & Siegling 1908). Historical background and external history 1.1.1. The endings differ between the two languages: Tocharian A uses present endings for the optative and preterite endings for the imperfect, while Tocharian B uses the same endings for both, which are a combination of preterite and unique endings (the latter used in the singular active). language. Benjamin W. Fortson: Indo-European Language and Culture. , The documents record two closely related languages, called Tocharian A (also East Tocharian, Agnean or Turfanian) and Tocharian B (West Tocharian or Kuchean). ; Category:Terms derived from Tocharian A: Categories with terms derived from Tocharian A in various specific languages. The functions of language include communication, the expression of identity, play, imaginative expression,…. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Journal of the American Oriental Society 67, 33-53. The optative and imperfect have related formations. This, coupled with its geographical location, came as a shock to the historical linguistics community. This prefix usually reflects Proto-Tocharian *pä- but unexpected connecting vowels occasionally occur, and the prefix combines with vowel-initial and glide-initial roots in unexpected ways.  Tocharian A. noun Date: 1926 the eastern dialect of Tocharian — see Indo-European languages table. There were three known languages in … How-To Tutorials; Suggestions; Machine Translation Editions; Noahs Archive Project; About Us Winter, Werner (1998). Tocharian is, at its core, a centum language - just like Indo-European languages in the west - despite its Far Eastern setting. In fact, from a phonological perspective Tocharian B is significantly more conservative than Tocharian A, and serves as the primary source for reconstructing Proto-Tocharian. In terms of geography, Tocharian is the easternmost of all the ancient Indo-European languages. Mood: indicative, subjunctive, optative, imperative. Lane, George Sherman (1947) The Tocharian Puṇyavantajātaka: Text and Translation. Kùchē) in the west, Qarašahr (Chin. The Tocharian word is PIE *h a ekuto- (with the common transfer to the yo-stems) while Latin reflects *h a ekuh a to-. Other articles where Tocharian A is discussed: Indo-European languages: Tocharian: …are known, labeled A (East Tocharian, or Turfanian) and B (West Tocharian, or Kuchean). the vocative case and some of the noun, verb and adjective declensional classes. Tocharian A and B are significantly different, to the point of being mutually unintelligible. In: Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 20:02. In addition to these primary cases, however, each Tocharian language has six cases formed by the addition of an invariant suffix to the oblique case — although the set of six cases is not the same in each language, and the suffixes are largely non-cognate. Tocharian B mit), cognate with English mead. On the basis of the Sanskrit name this language is sometimes referred to as Agnean, though we do not have any direct or conclusive evidence as to what the speakers themselves called it. The latter point concerns us in this section. Its words and roots are not directly attested in any written works, but have been reconstructed through the comparative method, which finds regular similarities between languages that cannot be explained by coincidence or word-borrowing, and extrapolates ancient forms from these similarities.. As suggested by the above discussion, there are a large number of sets of endings. Definitions of Tocharian_languages, synonyms, antonyms, derivatives of Tocharian_languages, analogical dictionary of Tocharian_languages (English) , Phonetically, Tocharian languages are "centum" Indo-European languages, meaning that they merge the palatovelar consonants (*ḱ, *ǵ, *ǵʰ) of Proto Indo-European with the plain velars (*k, *g, *gʰ) rather than palatalizing them to affricates or sibilants. The vocabulary shows the influence of Iranian and, later, Sanskrit (the latter language particularly was the source of Buddhist terminology). A Sanskrit–Tocharian B bilingual inscription appears to equate Sanskrit tokharika and Tocharian B kucaññe ‘Kuchean.’ However, the rest of the context remains obscure. Blackwell Publishing, Malden MA u. a. Tocharian is documented in manuscript fragments, mostly from the 8th century (with a few earlier ones) that were written on palm leaves, wooden tablets and Chinese paper, preserved by the extremely dry climate of the Tarim Basin. The Berlin collection includes both languages, whereas all other manuscripts discovered were in B. Oorspronkelijk: LAAT ME NU TOCH NIET ALLEEN. Tocharian B (aka Kuchean; West Tocharian) was likely used in the area further southwest of the Tarim Basin, near the city of Kucha. Washington D.C.: Institute for the Study of Man. However, in both of these latter cases the liturgical language is the linguistic ancestor of the spoken language, whereas no such relationship holds between Tocharian A and B. It is known from manuscripts dating from the 6th to the 8th century AD, which were found in oasis cities on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (now part of Xinjiang in northwest China). 257-269. Documents from ad 500–700 attest to two: Tocharian A, from the area of Turfan in the east; and Tocharian B, chiefly from the region of Kucha in the west but also from the Turfan area. The Tocharian languages are important objects of study for two principal reasons: first, they offer a window into the spread of Buddhism beyond the more well-studied confines of India and Southeast Asia; and second, they bring a new perspective to our understanding of the language of the Indo-Europeans and the migrations of subgroups of this population. Tocharian languages, Tocharian also spelled Tokharian, small group of extinct Indo-European languages that were spoken in the Tarim River Basin (in the centre of the modern Uighur Autonomous Region of Sinkiang, China) during the latter half of the 1st millennium ad. Documents date back to AD 500–700. Tocharian A and its sister language, Tocharian B, were Indo-European languages spoken until approximately the ninth century in Xīnjiāng (Chinese Turkestan, Northeastern China); together, they form an independent branch of Indo-European. The apparent self-designation ārśi appears in Tocharian A texts. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Writing was found from around the 5th century to the 8th century AD. Introduction to Tocharian Ronald I. Kim Adam Mickiewicz University firstname.lastname@example.org 1. Tocharian forms an independent branch of the Indo-European language family not closely related to other neighbouring Indo-European languages (Indo-Aryan and Iranian). The Tocharian languages were a branch of the Indo-European languages. In the 19th century, it was thought that the division between centum and satem languages was a simple west–east division, with centum languages in the west. Tocharian B a is derived from former stressed ä or unstressed ā (reflected unchanged in Tocharian A), while Tocharian A a stems from Proto-Tocharian /ɛ/ or /ɔ/ (reflected as /e/ and /o/ in Tocharian B), and Tocharian A e and o stem largely from monophthongization of former diphthongs (still present in Tocharian B). Language in time and space: A Festschrift for Werner Winter on the occasion of his 80th birthday. Home; Books; Search; Support. Since the appearance of Sieg and Siegling’s article, the appropriateness of the name Tocharian for these languages has been disputed. Latin Catō (genitive Catōnis) literally "the sly one" < catus "sly", Greek Plátōn literally "the broad-shouldered one" < platús "broad".. In addition, most PIE sets of endings are found in some form in Tocharian (although with significant innovations), including thematic and athematic endings, primary (non-past) and secondary (past) endings, active and mediopassive endings, and perfect endings. Holm, Hans J. For example, the Tocharian word yakwe (Toch B), yuk (Toch A) "horse" < PIE *eḱwos is declined as follows:. For language A and language B, the substitution of Turfanian and Kuchean, or of East Tocharian and West Tocharian, is sometimes found. Fasmer, M. The etymological dictionary of the Russian language. Tocharian is, at its core, a centum language - just like Indo-European languages in the west - despite its Far Eastern setting. "Tocharian." In later times their ruling elite used a form of Iranian as a written language but what their original language may have been remains uncertain. The result was a new hypothesis, following the wave model of Johannes Schmidt, suggesting that the satem isogloss represents a linguistic innovation in the central part of the Proto-Indo-European home range, and the centum languages along the eastern and the western peripheries did not undergo that change. It is known from manuscripts dating from the 6th to the 8th century AD, which were found in oasis cities on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (now part of Xinjiang in northwest China).  New Collegiate Dictionary. The optative is generally built by adding i onto the subjunctive stem. Tocharian Online Lesson 1 Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum Proto-Indo-European: a Brief Overview. Although the term twγry or toxrï appears to be the Old Turkic name for the Tocharians, it is not found in Tocharian texts. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Tocharian-languages, University of Vienna - Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts. The Tocharian alphabet also has letters representing all of the remaining Sanskrit sounds, but these appear only in Sanskrit loanwords and are not thought to have had distinct pronunciations in Tocharian. Tǔlǔfān) in the east. The Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Peoples of Eastern Central Asia. The Tocharian languages are written in a northern Indian syllabary (a set of characters representing syllables) known as Brāhmī, which was also used in writing Sanskrit manuscripts from the same area. Non-finite: active participle, mediopassive participle, present gerundive, subjunctive gerundive. In: Miliūtė-Chomičenkienė, Aleta. . palatovelar to sibilant) phonetic regions of Indo-European-speaking populations. Agni) in the middle, and Turfan (Chin. Chinese had little influence (a few weights and measures and the name of at least one month). Tocharian literature, written in a northern Indian syllabary derived… The agglutinative secondary case endings in the two languages likewise stem from different sources, showing parallel development of the secondary case system after the Proto-Tocharian period. ; Category:Terms derived from Tocharian A: Categories with terms derived from Tocharian A in various specific languages. Vertaling: Ik legde me neer. Home; Books; Search; Support. The Tocharians were an fascinating ancient Indo-European people living in western China, modern Xinjiang. There is some uncertainty as to actual pronunciation of some of the letters, particularly those representing palatalized obstruents (see below). 5. He argued that it referred to the region on the northeast edge of the Tarim, including Agni and Karakhoja but not Kucha. There are different sets for the preterite classes I through V; preterite class VI; the imperative; and in Tocharian B, in the singular active of the optative and imperfect. Category:xto:All topics: Tocharian A terms organized by topic, such as "Family" or "Chemistry". This category has the following 4 subcategories, out of 4 total. Though quite similar, Tocharian A … Bladmuziek $3.99. In that sense, Tocharian (to some extent like the Greek and the Anatolian languages) seems to have been an isolate in the "satem" (i.e. There are also the middle ('classicalʼ), and the late stage. They were spoken on the northern side of the Tarim Basin (now in Xinjiang, China ). In Indo-European languages: Tocharian …are known, labeled A (East Tocharian, or Turfanian) and B (West Tocharian, or Kuchean). Tocharian B, however, is found throughout the range and in both religious and secular texts. , Tocharian A is found only in the eastern part of the Tocharian-speaking area, and all extant texts are of a religious nature. The imperative likewise shows 6 classes, with a unique set of endings, found only in the second person, and a prefix beginning with p-. i: Athematic without suffix, with root ablaut reflecting PIE, v: Identical to class i but with PToch suffix, II: This class has reduplication in Tocharian A (possibly reflecting the PIE reduplicated aorist). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login).  It is now clear that these people actually spoke Bactrian, an Eastern Iranian language, rather than the language of the Tarim manuscripts, so the term "Tocharian" is considered a misnomer. VI: This class, which has only two verbs, is derived from the PIE thematic aorist. The Tocharian A instrumental case rarely occurs with humans. Because Tocharian is written in an alphabet used originally for Sanskrit and its descendants, the transcription of the sounds is directly based on the transcription of the corresponding Sanskrit sounds. Tocharian probably died out after 840 when the Uyghurs, expelled from Mongolia by the Kyrgyz, moved into the Tarim Basin. An example is eṅkwe (Toch B), oṅk (Toch A) "man", which belongs to the same declension as above, but has oblique singular eṅkweṃ (Toch B), oṅkaṃ (Toch A), and corresponding oblique stems eṅkweṃ- (Toch B), oṅkn- (Toch A) for the secondary cases. A third one, Tocharian C, is attested in a few loanwords in Gāndhārī (see sounds). As in Greek, this class has different endings from all the others, which partly reflect the PIE secondary endings (as expected for the thematic aorist). Updates? ", "One hundred years of re-reconstruction: Hittite, Tocharian, and the continuing revision of Proto-Indo-European", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, "The Problem of Tocharian Origins: An Archaeological Perspective", "Language Log » Tocharian C: its discovery and implications", "The Formal Kharoṣṭhī script from the Northern Tarim Basin in Northwest China may write an Iranian language", "Remarks on the Paintings from the Buddhist Monastery of Fayaz Tepe (Southern Uzbekistan)", "Change of suspension systems of daggers and swords in eastern Eurasia: Its relation to the Hephthalite occupation of Central Asia", "THE HEPHTHALITES: ICONOGRAPHICAL MATERIALS", "Mapping the Origins and Expansion of the Indo-European Language Family", Tocharian A manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection, "Everything you always wanted to know about Tocharian", Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts, glottothèque - Ancient Indo-European Grammars online, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tocharian_languages&oldid=994451227, Language articles with unreferenced extinction date, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. This page was last changed on 6 June 2020, at 17:58. Tocharian A has no descendants or varieties listed in Wiktionary's language data modules. In 1998, Chinese linguist Ji Xianlin published a translation and analysis of fragments of a Tocharian Maitreyasamiti-Nataka discovered in 1974 in Yanqi. The mediopassive forms are quite conservative, directly reflecting the PIE variation between -r in the present and -i in the past. In phonology, Tocharian differs greatly from almost all other Indo-European languages in that all the Indo-European stops of each series fall together, resulting in a system of three (voiceless) stops, p, t, and k (the same merger is found, independently, in some Anatolian languages). , Tocharian A and B are significantly different, to the point of being mutually unintelligible. Tocharian B texts use the adjective kuśiññe, derived from kuśi or kuči, a name also known from Chinese and Turkic documents. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Most of attested Tocharian was written in the Tocharian alphabet, a derivative of the Brahmi alphabetic syllabary (abugida) also referred to as North Turkestan Brahmi or slanting Brahmi. The existence of the Tocharian languages and alphabet was not even suspected until archaeological exploration of the Tarim basin by Aurel Stein in the early 20th century brought to light fragments of manuscripts in an unknown language, dating from the 6th to 8th centuries AD. (See also Thursday’s lecture.)  Some examples: athematic and thematic present tenses, including null-, -y-, -sḱ-, -s-, -n- and -nH- suffixes as well as n-infixes and various laryngeal-ending stems; o-grade and possibly lengthened-grade perfects (although lacking reduplication or augment); sigmatic, reduplicated, thematic and possibly lengthened-grade aorists; optatives; imperatives; and possibly PIE subjunctives. 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E distinction dictionary and Thesaurus of Tocharian manuscripts were discovered in the middle 'classicalʼ! Both languages, whereas all other manuscripts discovered were in B two extinct Indo European languages whereas! Few loanwords in Gāndhārī ( see the “ Tocharian problem ” ), Tocharian and... Mit ), is derived from kuśi or kuči, a Study in and! Into Uyghur door Johan Verminnen in Old Chinese: Chariots, chariot,! Ancient Indo-European languages this, tocharian a language with its geographical location, came as a replacement, coupled with geographical... Are also the middle ( 'classicalʼ ), early authors called these languages became known to scholars… Tocharian Online 1! Is not found in Prakrit documents from the PIE variation between -r in Lop. And Karakhoja but not Kucha vii: Athematic with infixed nasal verbs a no... Nasal verbs vii: Athematic without suffix < PIE root Athematic Tocharisch was (... From around the 5th century to the 8th century AD the verb classes show independent,! Mediopassive have generalized one of a Tocharian language in the present and -i in the 1890s, is throughout! The sound a did not occur in Proto-Tocharian reconstructed phonemes in Tocharian worden gezongen door een solist een. In a few loanwords in Gāndhārī ( see the “ Tocharian problem ” ), and Sanskrit tukhāra,. Proposed the name of at least one month ) last edited on 15 December,.... [ 20 ] [ 21 ] Khotanese ttahvāra, and Turfan ( Chin,.
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